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Title          
 Temperature measurements during Reentry 
 
Abstract
 This experiment is aimed at simulating the re-entry conditions encountered during the actual flight in a plasma arc jet facility and investigating the temperature distribution along with the thermal expansion on the surface of a re-entry vehicle in order to study the thermal breakdown mechanisms of the carbon-carbon composite of the leading edge of the vehicle.This test facility is designed to test a suitably sized block of the Thermal Protection System (TPS) made up of carbon – carbon composite that is currently used in these vehicles and also any newly developed materials of appropriate size for evaluation as a possible replacement. The final outcome of this project is intended to be a quantitative relation that indicates the robustness of a material and thereby its ability to qualify as a material of choice for reusable re-entry vehicles.
 
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Added By - sidpatel
Subject - Aeronautics and Astronautics
Document Type - White Paper
 
 
   
   

 

Title          
 Supersonic Nozzle design by Method of Charact... 
 
Abstract
 Using the 2D Method of Characteristics (MOC), the contour of a two dimensional minimum-length nozzle for the expansion of air to a design exit Mach number of 2 is computed and graphed. The problem is extended to include a nozzle with a finite expansion section which is a circular arc with a diameter equal to three throat heights. C++ source codes for the 2 nozzles are included. By inputting the values of gas constant, test section mach number, throat height and level of precision one can design nozzles for different working fluids at different test section mach numbers.

The report was generated as a part of a graduate course on compressible aerodynamics taught that semester by Dr John D Anderson. His book entitled 'Modern Compressible Flow - with Historical perspectives' contain a good chapter on the use of the MOC in designing supersonic nozzle contours (Chapter 11 of the third edition).

 
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Added By - A Ghosh
Subject - Aeronautics and Astronautics
Document Type - White Paper
 
 
   
   

 

Title          
 Laminar Separation Bubble 
 
Abstract
 This essay focuses on the phenomenon of Laminar Separation Bubble observed at Low Reynolds Numbers. The effect of this bubble on the airfoil characteristics is discussed. Airfoils used at low Reynolds numbers have to be designed taking into consideration the finite space and time occupied by the bubble. Active as well as passive mechanisms to control/delay the formation of the bubble are also mentioned.

For conventional aircraft wings, whose Reynolds number exceeds a million, the flow is typically turbulent with the boundary layer able to strengthen itself by ‘mixing’. Consequently flow doesn’t separate until high angles of attack are encountered. For lower Reynolds numbers, the flow is initially laminar and is prone to separate even under mild adverse pressure gradient. Under certain flow conditions, the separated flow reattaches and forms a Laminar Separation Bubble (Fig. 1) while transitioning from laminar to turbulent state. Laminar separation bubble could modify the effective shape of the airfoil and consequently influence the aerodynamic performance, generally in a negative manner.

The need to understand low Reynolds number (104 to 106) aerodynamics is driven by variety of applicat...
 
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Added By - anandsaxena
Subject - Aeronautics and Astronautics
Document Type - White Paper
 
 
   
   

 

Title          
 A Technical Essay on the Gyroplane 
 
Abstract
 A study of “Gyroplane” and its historical evolution, general characteristics, flight characteristics, various designs, potential applications and aerodynamics explaining its flight is attempted. “Gyroplane” is an official term designated by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) describing an aircraft that gets lift from a freely turning rotary wing, or rotor blades, and which derives its thrust from an engine-driven propeller. The focus is on highlighting the differences between a Gyroplane and a conventional helicopter, relative merits and demerits and to trace the development to helicopters from autogiros. What lies ahead in the future for gyroplanes is also discussed.

Cierva thought of designing a flying machine that remains stable, safe and controllable irrespective of its forward speed. He segregated the function of lift and forward propulsion, where the former was done by a freely rotating rotor (and not wings) and latter by a conventional pusher or tractor engine.The rotor of an Autogiro (term coined and patented by Cierva) always works in a state of autorotation and a small upward flow is sufficient to rotate the disk. Thus, as long as the machine has forward motion the rotor would produce sufficient lif...
 
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Added By - anandsaxena
Subject - Aeronautics and Astronautics
Document Type - White Paper
 
 
   
   

 

Title          
 Physics of flow about lifting bodies 
 
Abstract
 

Physics of lifting bodies is studied in some depth using the NASA Foilsim software freely available on website.With this software we can investigate how an aircraft wing produces lift by changing the values of different factors that affect lift.There are several different versions of FoilSim II which require different levels of experience with the package, knowledge of aerodynamics, and computer technology. An offline version can be downloaded and being interactive a variety of problems can be analyzed using it. In the present work a detailed analysis of ‘Physics of flow about lifting bodies' is studied.

FoilSim is a computer simulator program that calculates the total "lift" of a specified wing. By using this program, the user can prove that the lifting capacity of the wing can remain the same at different airspeeds-as long as the angle of attack is changed to compensate. If the airspeed remains unchanged, an increase in the angle of attack will initially increase the lifting capacity of the wing. 

 
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Added By - anandsaxena
Subject - Aeronautics and Astronautics
Document Type - White Paper
 
 
   
   

 

Title          
 Hints for understanding low speed wind tunnel... 
 
Abstract
 

The effort here has been to compile and present collectively the concepts of Low Speed Wind Tunnel. I have tried to make it explanatory with help of large number of figures and pictures whose sources have been mentioned under them. I have tried to incorporate as much latest information as available via Internet although the backbone of the work is ‘Wind Tunnel Technique’ by R.C. Pankhurst, National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, England. It includes a very descriptive documentation of the Wind Tunnel and in a very organized manner.This work was done as an assignment for one of the undergrad courses. Information may not be very current but the general principles remain the same nevertheless.

Wind tunnel testing is the technical support of any major development process involving aerodynamics. It is used for aircraft, helicopters,cars, trains, and laboratory research.It is estimated that it took the Wright Brothers less than 20 hours of wind tunnel testing to produce their successful Flyer (although their empirical research was a life time achievement). The Douglas DC-3, perhaps the most successful commercial aircraft ever built, required about 100 hours of wind tunnel testing. Wind tunnel time has been steadi...

 
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Added By - anandsaxena
Subject - Aeronautics and Astronautics
Document Type - White Paper
 
 
   
   

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